This is a fixed-text formatted version of a Jupyter notebook

TSMapEstimator vs. ExcessMapEstimator

This notebooks compares the results of the full likelihood fitting approach (“forward folding”) against the Li&Ma solution of the same problem (“backwards folding”). The results are expected to be approximately equivalent in case of using a disk kernel for the TSMapEstimator and neclecting the effect of the PSF.

The remaining difference is that while the ExcessMapEstimator sums all counts and computes flux based on the mean exposure in the same region, the TSMapEstimator takes into account the full pixel by pixel information.

Results: - The results are indeed approximately equivalent - On average the TSMapEstimator find slightly higher errors because it takes into account the fluctuations per pixel - The ExcessMapEstimator is faster by a factor of 50-100 for ordinary flux and error estimation. Once assymetric errors and ULs are computed the TSMapEstimator shows the better performance and is ~2-3 times faster. When taking multiprocessing into account it is even faster by a factor of ~10.

[1]:
from gammapy.estimators import ExcessMapEstimator, TSMapEstimator
from gammapy.datasets import MapDataset
from gammapy.modeling.models import (
    SkyModel,
    PowerLawNormSpectralModel,
    PowerLawSpectralModel,
    DiskSpatialModel,
)
import numpy as np
from astropy import units as u
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
[2]:
dataset = MapDataset.read(
    "$GAMMAPY_DATA/cta-1dc-gc/cta-1dc-gc.fits.gz", name="cta_dataset"
)
dataset.psf = None
[3]:
est = ExcessMapEstimator(
    correlation_radius="0.1 deg",
)

model = SkyModel(
    spectral_model=PowerLawSpectralModel(),
    spatial_model=DiskSpatialModel(r_0="0.1 deg"),
)

ts_est = TSMapEstimator(
    model=model,
    sum_over_energy_groups=True,
)
[4]:
est_all = ExcessMapEstimator(
    correlation_radius="0.1 deg", selection_optional="all"
)


ts_est_all = TSMapEstimator(
    model=model,
    sum_over_energy_groups=True,
    selection_optional="all",
    n_jobs=8,
)
[5]:
%%time
result = est.run(dataset=dataset)
CPU times: user 112 ms, sys: 21 ms, total: 133 ms
Wall time: 133 ms
[6]:
%%time
result_ts = ts_est.run(dataset)
CPU times: user 9.66 s, sys: 138 ms, total: 9.8 s
Wall time: 9.82 s
[7]:
%%time
result = est_all.run(dataset=dataset)
CPU times: user 3min 37s, sys: 1.77 s, total: 3min 38s
Wall time: 3min 40s
[8]:
%%time
result_ts = ts_est_all.run(dataset)
CPU times: user 1.51 s, sys: 253 ms, total: 1.77 s
Wall time: 16.9 s
[9]:
def plot_side_by_side(m_1, m_2, **kwargs):
    fig = plt.figure(figsize=(14, 12))
    ax1 = plt.subplot(221, projection=m_1.geom.wcs)
    ax2 = plt.subplot(222, projection=m_1.geom.wcs)
    ax3 = plt.subplot(223, projection=m_1.geom.wcs)
    ax4 = plt.subplot(224)

    m_1.plot(ax1, **kwargs)
    ax1.set_title("ExcessMapEstimator")

    m_2.plot(ax2, **kwargs)
    ax2.set_title("TSMapEstimator")

    ax4.scatter(m_1.data.flat, m_2.data.flat, s=2, alpha=0.05)
    ax4.set_title("Correlation")
    ax4.set_xlabel("ExcessMapEstimator")
    ax4.set_ylabel("TSMapEstimator")
    ax4.set_xlim(kwargs["vmin"], kwargs["vmax"])
    ax4.set_ylim(kwargs["vmin"], kwargs["vmax"])
    x = np.linspace(kwargs["vmin"], kwargs["vmax"], 3)
    ax4.plot(x, x, color="k")
    ax4.set_aspect("equal")

    diff = m_1 - m_2
    vmax = -0.1 * kwargs["vmax"]
    diff.plot(
        ax=ax3,
        cmap="RdBu",
        stretch="linear",
        add_cbar=True,
        vmin=-vmax,
        vmax=vmax,
    )
    ax3.set_title("Difference (ExcessMap - TSMap)")

Flux

[10]:
plot_side_by_side(
    result.flux, result_ts.flux, add_cbar=True, vmin=-0.3e-11, vmax=2e-11
);
/opt/miniconda3/envs/gammapy-dev/lib/python3.7/site-packages/astropy/visualization/wcsaxes/core.py:211: MatplotlibDeprecationWarning: Passing parameters norm and vmin/vmax simultaneously is deprecated since 3.3 and will become an error two minor releases later. Please pass vmin/vmax directly to the norm when creating it.
  return super().imshow(X, *args, origin=origin, **kwargs)
/opt/miniconda3/envs/gammapy-dev/lib/python3.7/site-packages/astropy/visualization/wcsaxes/core.py:211: MatplotlibDeprecationWarning: Passing parameters norm and vmin/vmax simultaneously is deprecated since 3.3 and will become an error two minor releases later. Please pass vmin/vmax directly to the norm when creating it.
  return super().imshow(X, *args, origin=origin, **kwargs)
../../_images/notebooks_ts-vs-excess-map-estimator_ts-vs-exess-map-estimator_12_1.png

Flux Error

[11]:
plot_side_by_side(
    result.flux_err,
    result_ts.flux_err,
    add_cbar=True,
    vmin=0.5e-12,
    vmax=2e-12,
);
/opt/miniconda3/envs/gammapy-dev/lib/python3.7/site-packages/astropy/visualization/wcsaxes/core.py:211: MatplotlibDeprecationWarning: Passing parameters norm and vmin/vmax simultaneously is deprecated since 3.3 and will become an error two minor releases later. Please pass vmin/vmax directly to the norm when creating it.
  return super().imshow(X, *args, origin=origin, **kwargs)
/opt/miniconda3/envs/gammapy-dev/lib/python3.7/site-packages/astropy/visualization/wcsaxes/core.py:211: MatplotlibDeprecationWarning: Passing parameters norm and vmin/vmax simultaneously is deprecated since 3.3 and will become an error two minor releases later. Please pass vmin/vmax directly to the norm when creating it.
  return super().imshow(X, *args, origin=origin, **kwargs)
../../_images/notebooks_ts-vs-excess-map-estimator_ts-vs-exess-map-estimator_14_1.png

Flux UL

[12]:
plot_side_by_side(
    result.flux_ul, result_ts.flux_ul, add_cbar=True, vmin=-0.3e-11, vmax=2e-11
);
/opt/miniconda3/envs/gammapy-dev/lib/python3.7/site-packages/astropy/visualization/wcsaxes/core.py:211: MatplotlibDeprecationWarning: Passing parameters norm and vmin/vmax simultaneously is deprecated since 3.3 and will become an error two minor releases later. Please pass vmin/vmax directly to the norm when creating it.
  return super().imshow(X, *args, origin=origin, **kwargs)
/opt/miniconda3/envs/gammapy-dev/lib/python3.7/site-packages/astropy/visualization/wcsaxes/core.py:211: MatplotlibDeprecationWarning: Passing parameters norm and vmin/vmax simultaneously is deprecated since 3.3 and will become an error two minor releases later. Please pass vmin/vmax directly to the norm when creating it.
  return super().imshow(X, *args, origin=origin, **kwargs)
../../_images/notebooks_ts-vs-excess-map-estimator_ts-vs-exess-map-estimator_16_1.png

Flux Error Pos.

[13]:
plot_side_by_side(
    result.flux_errp,
    result_ts.flux_errp,
    add_cbar=True,
    vmin=0.5e-12,
    vmax=2e-12,
);
/opt/miniconda3/envs/gammapy-dev/lib/python3.7/site-packages/astropy/visualization/wcsaxes/core.py:211: MatplotlibDeprecationWarning: Passing parameters norm and vmin/vmax simultaneously is deprecated since 3.3 and will become an error two minor releases later. Please pass vmin/vmax directly to the norm when creating it.
  return super().imshow(X, *args, origin=origin, **kwargs)
/opt/miniconda3/envs/gammapy-dev/lib/python3.7/site-packages/astropy/visualization/wcsaxes/core.py:211: MatplotlibDeprecationWarning: Passing parameters norm and vmin/vmax simultaneously is deprecated since 3.3 and will become an error two minor releases later. Please pass vmin/vmax directly to the norm when creating it.
  return super().imshow(X, *args, origin=origin, **kwargs)
../../_images/notebooks_ts-vs-excess-map-estimator_ts-vs-exess-map-estimator_18_1.png

Flux Error Neg.

[14]:
# result._data["norm_errn"].data *= -1

plot_side_by_side(
    result.flux_errn,
    result_ts.flux_errn,
    add_cbar=True,
    vmin=0.4e-12,
    vmax=2e-12,
);
/opt/miniconda3/envs/gammapy-dev/lib/python3.7/site-packages/astropy/visualization/wcsaxes/core.py:211: MatplotlibDeprecationWarning: Passing parameters norm and vmin/vmax simultaneously is deprecated since 3.3 and will become an error two minor releases later. Please pass vmin/vmax directly to the norm when creating it.
  return super().imshow(X, *args, origin=origin, **kwargs)
/opt/miniconda3/envs/gammapy-dev/lib/python3.7/site-packages/astropy/visualization/wcsaxes/core.py:211: MatplotlibDeprecationWarning: Passing parameters norm and vmin/vmax simultaneously is deprecated since 3.3 and will become an error two minor releases later. Please pass vmin/vmax directly to the norm when creating it.
  return super().imshow(X, *args, origin=origin, **kwargs)
../../_images/notebooks_ts-vs-excess-map-estimator_ts-vs-exess-map-estimator_20_1.png

Sqrt(TS)

[15]:
plot_side_by_side(
    result.sqrt_ts,
    result_ts.sqrt_ts,
    add_cbar=True,
    vmin=-5,
    vmax=20,
    stretch="linear",
);
/opt/miniconda3/envs/gammapy-dev/lib/python3.7/site-packages/astropy/visualization/wcsaxes/core.py:211: MatplotlibDeprecationWarning: Passing parameters norm and vmin/vmax simultaneously is deprecated since 3.3 and will become an error two minor releases later. Please pass vmin/vmax directly to the norm when creating it.
  return super().imshow(X, *args, origin=origin, **kwargs)
/opt/miniconda3/envs/gammapy-dev/lib/python3.7/site-packages/astropy/visualization/wcsaxes/core.py:211: MatplotlibDeprecationWarning: Passing parameters norm and vmin/vmax simultaneously is deprecated since 3.3 and will become an error two minor releases later. Please pass vmin/vmax directly to the norm when creating it.
  return super().imshow(X, *args, origin=origin, **kwargs)
../../_images/notebooks_ts-vs-excess-map-estimator_ts-vs-exess-map-estimator_22_1.png

NPred Excess

[16]:
plot_side_by_side(
    result.npred_excess,
    result_ts.npred_excess,
    add_cbar=True,
    vmin=-40,
    vmax=500,
    stretch="sqrt",
);
/opt/miniconda3/envs/gammapy-dev/lib/python3.7/site-packages/astropy/visualization/wcsaxes/core.py:211: MatplotlibDeprecationWarning: Passing parameters norm and vmin/vmax simultaneously is deprecated since 3.3 and will become an error two minor releases later. Please pass vmin/vmax directly to the norm when creating it.
  return super().imshow(X, *args, origin=origin, **kwargs)
/opt/miniconda3/envs/gammapy-dev/lib/python3.7/site-packages/astropy/visualization/wcsaxes/core.py:211: MatplotlibDeprecationWarning: Passing parameters norm and vmin/vmax simultaneously is deprecated since 3.3 and will become an error two minor releases later. Please pass vmin/vmax directly to the norm when creating it.
  return super().imshow(X, *args, origin=origin, **kwargs)
../../_images/notebooks_ts-vs-excess-map-estimator_ts-vs-exess-map-estimator_24_1.png

NPred Ref.

[17]:
plot_side_by_side(
    result.npred_excess_ref,
    result_ts.npred_excess_ref,
    add_cbar=True,
    vmin=0,
    vmax=500,
);
/opt/miniconda3/envs/gammapy-dev/lib/python3.7/site-packages/astropy/visualization/wcsaxes/core.py:211: MatplotlibDeprecationWarning: Passing parameters norm and vmin/vmax simultaneously is deprecated since 3.3 and will become an error two minor releases later. Please pass vmin/vmax directly to the norm when creating it.
  return super().imshow(X, *args, origin=origin, **kwargs)
/opt/miniconda3/envs/gammapy-dev/lib/python3.7/site-packages/astropy/visualization/wcsaxes/core.py:211: MatplotlibDeprecationWarning: Passing parameters norm and vmin/vmax simultaneously is deprecated since 3.3 and will become an error two minor releases later. Please pass vmin/vmax directly to the norm when creating it.
  return super().imshow(X, *args, origin=origin, **kwargs)
../../_images/notebooks_ts-vs-excess-map-estimator_ts-vs-exess-map-estimator_26_1.png

NPred Err

[18]:
plot_side_by_side(
    result.npred_excess_err,
    result_ts.npred_excess_err,
    add_cbar=True,
    vmin=0,
    vmax=30,
);
/opt/miniconda3/envs/gammapy-dev/lib/python3.7/site-packages/astropy/visualization/wcsaxes/core.py:211: MatplotlibDeprecationWarning: Passing parameters norm and vmin/vmax simultaneously is deprecated since 3.3 and will become an error two minor releases later. Please pass vmin/vmax directly to the norm when creating it.
  return super().imshow(X, *args, origin=origin, **kwargs)
/opt/miniconda3/envs/gammapy-dev/lib/python3.7/site-packages/astropy/visualization/wcsaxes/core.py:211: MatplotlibDeprecationWarning: Passing parameters norm and vmin/vmax simultaneously is deprecated since 3.3 and will become an error two minor releases later. Please pass vmin/vmax directly to the norm when creating it.
  return super().imshow(X, *args, origin=origin, **kwargs)
../../_images/notebooks_ts-vs-excess-map-estimator_ts-vs-exess-map-estimator_28_1.png

NPred Error Pos.

[19]:
plot_side_by_side(
    result.npred_excess_errp,
    result_ts.npred_excess_errp,
    add_cbar=True,
    vmin=0,
    vmax=30,
);
/opt/miniconda3/envs/gammapy-dev/lib/python3.7/site-packages/astropy/visualization/wcsaxes/core.py:211: MatplotlibDeprecationWarning: Passing parameters norm and vmin/vmax simultaneously is deprecated since 3.3 and will become an error two minor releases later. Please pass vmin/vmax directly to the norm when creating it.
  return super().imshow(X, *args, origin=origin, **kwargs)
/opt/miniconda3/envs/gammapy-dev/lib/python3.7/site-packages/astropy/visualization/wcsaxes/core.py:211: MatplotlibDeprecationWarning: Passing parameters norm and vmin/vmax simultaneously is deprecated since 3.3 and will become an error two minor releases later. Please pass vmin/vmax directly to the norm when creating it.
  return super().imshow(X, *args, origin=origin, **kwargs)
../../_images/notebooks_ts-vs-excess-map-estimator_ts-vs-exess-map-estimator_30_1.png

NPred Error Neg.

[20]:
plot_side_by_side(
    result.npred_excess_errn,
    result_ts.npred_excess_errn,
    add_cbar=True,
    vmin=0,
    vmax=30,
);
/opt/miniconda3/envs/gammapy-dev/lib/python3.7/site-packages/astropy/visualization/wcsaxes/core.py:211: MatplotlibDeprecationWarning: Passing parameters norm and vmin/vmax simultaneously is deprecated since 3.3 and will become an error two minor releases later. Please pass vmin/vmax directly to the norm when creating it.
  return super().imshow(X, *args, origin=origin, **kwargs)
/opt/miniconda3/envs/gammapy-dev/lib/python3.7/site-packages/astropy/visualization/wcsaxes/core.py:211: MatplotlibDeprecationWarning: Passing parameters norm and vmin/vmax simultaneously is deprecated since 3.3 and will become an error two minor releases later. Please pass vmin/vmax directly to the norm when creating it.
  return super().imshow(X, *args, origin=origin, **kwargs)
../../_images/notebooks_ts-vs-excess-map-estimator_ts-vs-exess-map-estimator_32_1.png

NPred UL

[21]:
plot_side_by_side(
    result.npred_excess_ul,
    result_ts.npred_excess_ul,
    add_cbar=True,
    vmin=-30,
    vmax=500,
    stretch="sqrt",
);
/opt/miniconda3/envs/gammapy-dev/lib/python3.7/site-packages/astropy/visualization/wcsaxes/core.py:211: MatplotlibDeprecationWarning: Passing parameters norm and vmin/vmax simultaneously is deprecated since 3.3 and will become an error two minor releases later. Please pass vmin/vmax directly to the norm when creating it.
  return super().imshow(X, *args, origin=origin, **kwargs)
/opt/miniconda3/envs/gammapy-dev/lib/python3.7/site-packages/astropy/visualization/wcsaxes/core.py:211: MatplotlibDeprecationWarning: Passing parameters norm and vmin/vmax simultaneously is deprecated since 3.3 and will become an error two minor releases later. Please pass vmin/vmax directly to the norm when creating it.
  return super().imshow(X, *args, origin=origin, **kwargs)
../../_images/notebooks_ts-vs-excess-map-estimator_ts-vs-exess-map-estimator_34_1.png